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Understanding Python Numbers: Complete guide

August 24, 2023 | by bytessquad.com

Python Numbers

In the world of programming, numbers play a crucial role. Whether you’re a seasoned developer or just starting your coding journey, Python’s versatility in handling numbers is undeniable. Python provides various numeric data types and a rich set of functions to manipulate them. In this article, we’ll delve deep into Python numbers, exploring different numeric types, performing basic operations, and showcasing practical examples.

Data Types in Python

Numeric Data Types in Python

Python supports several numeric data types, but the most commonly used ones are:

1. Integer (int)

Integers are whole numbers without any decimal point. They can be positive, negative, or zero. For example:

x = 5
y = -10
z = 0

2. Floating-Point (float)

Floating-point numbers, or floats, represent real numbers with decimal points. They can also be expressed in scientific notation. For example:

pi = 3.14159265
e = 2.71828183
sci_num = 1.23e-4  # Scientific notation

3. Complex (complex)

Complex numbers consist of a real part and an imaginary part, denoted by ‘j’ in Python. For example:

z = 3 + 4j
w = -2j

Basic Arithmetic Operations

Python allows you to perform standard arithmetic operations on numeric data types:

1. Addition

a = 5
b = 3
sum_ab = a + b  # Result: 8

2. Subtraction

x = 10
y = 4
diff_xy = x - y  # Result: 6

3. Multiplication

m = 7
n = 2
product_mn = m * n  # Result: 14

4. Division

p = 9
q = 3
quotient_pq = p / q  # Result: 3.0 (float)

5. Floor Division

Floor division discards the decimal part and returns the largest integer that is less than or equal to the result.

p = 9
q = 2
floor_div_pq = p // q  # Result: 4 (int)

6. Modulus (Remainder)

p = 9
q = 4
remainder_pq = p % q  # Result: 1

7. Exponentiation

base = 2
exponent = 3
result = base ** exponent  # Result: 8

Numeric Type Conversion

Python allows you to convert between numeric data types using type casting functions. For example:

float_num = 3.5
int_num = int(float_num)  # Converts to integer: 3

int_num = 7
float_num = float(int_num)  # Converts to float: 7.0

complex_num = complex(2, 3)  # Creates a complex number: (2+3j)

Built-in Numeric Functions

Python provides various built-in functions for numeric operations:

1. abs(): Returns the absolute value of a number.

num = -5
abs_num = abs(num)  # Result: 5

2. max(): Returns the maximum value among the given numbers.

numbers = [3, 7, 1, 9]
max_num = max(numbers)  # Result: 9

3. min(): Returns the minimum value among the given numbers.

numbers = [3, 7, 1, 9]
min_num = min(numbers)  # Result: 1

4. pow(): Returns the result of raising a number to a specified power.

base = 2
exponent = 3
result = pow(base, exponent)  # Result: 8
Python Data Types

Conclusion

Understanding Python’s numeric data types and how to work with them is essential for any programmer. This article has provided an in-depth exploration of integer, floating-point, and complex numbers in Python, along with basic operations, type conversions, and built-in functions. Armed with this knowledge, you can confidently tackle a wide range of numerical tasks in Python. So, go ahead and start crunching those numbers with Python!

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